The transmission of basic skills and concepts that are the foundation of higher order thinking skills and creativity can be facilitated by ICTs through drill and practice. Educational television programs such as Sesame Street use repetition and reinforcement to teach the alphabet, numbers, colours, shapes and other basic concepts.
Most of the early uses of computers were for computer-based learning also called computer-assisted instruction that focused on mastery of skills and content through repetition and reinforcement. See section below on Computer-Based Learning. Enhancing teacher training. ICTs have also been used to improve access to and the quality of teacher training. For example, institutions like the Cyber Teacher Training Center CTTC in South Korea are taking advantage of the Internet to provide better teacher professional development opportunities to in-service teachers.
The government-funded CTTC, established in , offers self-directed, self-paced Web-based courses for primary and secondary school teachers. At Indira Gandhi National Open University, satellite-based one-way video- and two-way audio-conferencing was held in , supplemented by print-materials and recorded video, to train primary school teachers and facilitators from 20 district training institutes in Karnataka State.
The teachers interacted with remote lecturers by telephone and fax. Research has shown that the appropriate use of ICTs can catalyze the paradigmatic shift in both content and pedagogy that is at the heart of education reform in the 21st century. When used appropriately, ICTs—especially computers and Internet technologies— enable new ways of teaching and learning rather than simply allow teachers and students to do what they have done before in a better way.
These new ways of teaching and learning are underpinned by constructivist theories of learning and constitute a shift from a teacher-centered pedagogy—in its worst form characterized by memorization and rote learning—to one that is learner-centered. See Table 2 for a comparison of a traditional pedagogy and an emerging pedagogy enabled by ICTs.
Results from teachers indicated that female teachers were integrating technology into their teaching less than the male teachers. However, some studies revealed that gender variable was not a predictor of ICT integration into teaching .
In a research conducted , he found that male teachers had relatively higher levels of computer attitude and ability before computer implementation, but there was no difference between males and females regarding computer attitude and ability after the implementation of the technology. He claims that quality preparation on technology can help lessen gender inequalities. Reference  reported that teacher experience is significantly correlated with the actual use of technology. In her study, she revealed that effective use of computer was related to technological comfort levels and the liberty to shape instruction to teacher-perceived student needs.
Also,  claimed that experienced teachers are less ready to integrate ICT into their teaching. Similarly, in United States, the U. S National Centre for Education Statistics, reported that teachers with less experience in teaching were more likely to integrate computers in their teaching than teachers with more experience in teaching. The reason to this disparity may be that fresh teachers are more experienced in using the technology.
Several studies have been conducted that addressed the relationships between selected demographic variables such as teaching experience and subjects taught and usage of computer. One such study was  who found weak relationship existed between years of teaching with computer usage. Reference  observe that individuals with less than upper-secondary education are significantly less likely to use computers for a range of purposes and this pattern is most pronounced in Italy and Bermuda. According to the National Centre on Adult Literacy Technical Report one study in Britain found that people with more education have higher ICT skills, but suggests that more educated people tend to work with computers, making it difficult to differentiate whether education or employment has the biggest impact on ICT skill levels.
ICT in Education/The Promise of ICTs in Education - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Reference  related technology training to successful integration of technology in the classroom. In a study of pre-tertiary teachers, they showed that professional development and the continuing support of good practice are among the greatest determinants of successful ICT integration. They argue that training programs that concentrate on ICT pedagogical training instead of technical issues and effective technical support, help teachers apply technologies in teaching and learning. Research studies revealed that quality professional training program helps teachers implement technology and transform teaching practices .
Reference , teachers may adopt and integrate ICT into their teaching when training programs concentrate on subject matter, values and the technology. Educators who integrate technology with new teaching practices gained through professional training can transform the performance of the students . Teachers who are committed to professional development activities gain knowledge of ICT integration and classroom technology organization .
Clearly, it is imperative to allow teacher trainees to apply ICT in their programs when in school in order to be able to use the technology to supplement their teaching activities. Teachers when given time to practice with the technology, learn, share and collaborate with peer, it is likely that they will integrate the technology into their teaching. Access to ICT infrastructure and resources in schools is a necessary condition to the integration of ICT in education .
Effective adoption and integration of ICT into teaching in schools depends mainly on the availability and accessibility of ICT resources such as hardware, software, etc. Obviously, if teachers cannot access ICT resources, then they will not use them.
ICT in Education/The Promise of ICTs in Education
Therefore, access to computers, updated software and hardware are key elements to successful adoption and integration of technology. Reference  reported that the breakdown of a computer causes interruptions and if there is lack of technical assistance, then the regular repairs of the computer will not be carried out which resulting in teachers not using computers in teaching. Similarly,  said it is also crucial to provide the schools with technical support with regard to repair and maintenance for the continue use of ICT in schools.
Therefore, if there is no technical support for teachers, they become frustrated resulting in their unwillingness to use ICT . Even though, lack of technical support discourages teachers from adopting and integrating technology in classrooms, a study by  revealed that schools in Britain and the Netherlands have appreciated the significance of technical support to help teachers to integrate technology into their teaching. They argued that ICT support in schools influence teachers to apply ICT in classrooms without wasting time troubleshooting hardware and software problems.
Reference  believe that a leader who implements technology plans and also shares a common vision with the teachers stimulate them to use technology in their lessons. Schiff and Solmon suggest that for effective utilization of ICT by teachers, there is the need for a strong leadership to drive a well-designed technology plans in schools .
Becta report on the effect of ICT on teaching in basic schools in United Kingdom also stressed on significance of good leadership . In addition Becta identified five factors that were essential to be present in schools if ICT was to be utilized properly . According to the report:. Reference  conducted a study on factors that influenced transformational integration of ICT in eight schools in Hong Kong and Singapore.
The study revealed that leadership promotion of collaboration and experimentation and teachers dedication to student-centred learning influenced effective ICT transformation. Also studies have shown that various levels of leadership such as principal, administrative leadership and technology leadership influence successful use of ICT in schools .
School, Higher EducationCURRENT TRENDS
This aspect of leadership will help the principal to share tasks with subordinates while focusing on the adoption and integration of technology in the school. Institutions exemplified by executive involvement and decision-making, strengthened by ICT plan, effectively adopt ICT integration curriculum. One of the strongest factors between schools in teachers' use of technology is the perceived pressure to use technology .
Pressure to use technology indicates that teachers feel the expectation from others to use technology in classrooms. As technologies develop, teachers continue to be faced with increasing pressure to integrate technology into their teaching practices . Thus, it is important for teachers to know how to cope effectively with the pressure because the teacher is the key to effective integrate technology in classrooms .
Researchers e. In the use, support, and effect of instructional technology USEIT study,  claim that perceived pressure to use technology is positively associated with teachers' technology use for delivering instruction, for creating products, and for class preparation. On the same time, there are critical perspectives of pressure. For example,  insists that if teachers feel pressured to change their pedagogy in order to accommodate new technologies, they are more likely to resist adopting technology altogether.
Policy and planning are important in identifying the aims of using ICT in education and in determining priorities in allocating resources . He further points out that education authorities and the centres for which they are responsible have key tasks related to enabling, implementing and monitoring the use of ICT for learning and teaching. She further notes that while the availability of computers is limited, the cost of internet is high and the ratio of computers to population is insufficient; she cites the example of Sri Lanka and the Pacific Islands.
blacksmithsurgical.com/t3-assets/thriller/why-travel-when-you-can.php These countries have a high economic status and provide adequate ICT resources to their people. Technology characteristics influence the diffusion processes of an innovation and are significant factors impacting an innovation adoption. Evidence suggests that innovation attributes: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability as perceived by individuals influence the rate of adoption .
He stresses the need to understand the perceptions of an innovation, as this has strong influence on future prediction of adoption of specific innovation. Reference  asserts that when teachers integrate ICT into teaching, they operate as innovators. A number of recent studies on these areas have been studied.